Jumat, 14 Desember 2012

Report Text !

di 14.06


Pengertian Report Text




Istilah report text sering juga dikenal dengan sebutan informational report. Report, dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary Edisi 10, diartikan sebagai 1) an account given of a matter after investigation or consideration. 2) a piece of information about an event or situation. Jika disimpulkan, secara bahasa report text adalah teks yang berfungsi untuk memberikan informasi tentang suatu peristiwa atau situasi, setelah diadakannya investigasi dan melalui berbagai pertimbangan.



Definisi report text ini juga hampir mirip dengan apa yang sering disebutkan dalam berbagai buku bahasa Inggris di tingkat menengah, "Report is a text which present information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analyses." [Report adalah sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi tentang suatu hal dengan apa adanya. Teks ini adalah sebagai hasil dari observasi dan analisa secara sistematis.]



Dengan demikian, sebenarnya teks report dan descriptive mempunyai perbedaan yang cukup jelas, meski nampak keduanya dikatakan sebagai "saudara kembar" sekalipun.



Intinya, dalam report text itu biasanya berisi dengan fakta-fakta yang bisa dibuktikan secara ilmiah, Oke..




Generic Structure Report Text.


Seperti halnya dengan descriptive text, Report text juga hanya memiliki dua struktur umum [generic structure] yaitu :

  1. General Clasification; Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya. 
  2. Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors; Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan dengan ilmiah.

Ada juga beberapa keterangan mengenai generic structure report text, yang meliputi :

  1. General information
  2. Bundles of Specific Information

General information adalah bagian yang menyebutkan informasi umum dari tema tulisan yang. Sedangkan Bundles of specific information, adalah penjabaran dari informasi umum tersebut.



Saya sendiri lebih cenderung setuju dengan generic structure kedua; karena hal ini bisa membuat siswa lebih paham akan cara menulis report text.



Tujuan Report Text



Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki tujuan mengapa tulisan itu ditulis. Begitu juga dengan report text. Beberapa pakar menyebutkan bahwa tujuan teks report adalah :



Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on. 



Jika disimpulkan, tujuan report text adalah untuk menyampaikan informasi hasil pengamatan dan analisa yang sistematis. Informasi yang dijelaskan dalam report text biasanya bersifat umum, baik itu alamiah ataupun buata seperti binatang mamalia, planet, bebatuan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, negara bagian, budaya, transportasi, dan lain sebagainya.


Pola Tata Bahasa dalam Report Text


Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki ciri bahasa tersendiri; jika recount text dan narrative text cenderung memiliki ciri menggunakan simple past, lalu bagaimana dengan report text? Oke berikut adalah pola grammar yang umum digunakan dalam teks report, yang meliputi :

  • Use of general nouns, eg hunting dogs, rather than particular nouns, eg our dog;
  • Use of relating verbs to describe features, eg Molecules are tiny particles;
  • Some use of action verbs when describing behaviour, eg Emus cannot fly;
  • Use of timeless present tense to indicate usualness, eg Tropical cyclones always begin over the sea;
  • Use of technical terms, eg Isobars are lines drawn on a weather map;
  • Use of paragraphs with topic sentences to organise bundles of information; repeated naming of the topic as the beginning focus of the clause.

Keterangan :



  • General nouns, maksudnya adalah, suatu benda (baik itu hidup atau mati) yang bersifat umum. Coba bandingkan : Hunting dogs >< My dog. Hunting dogs bersifat umum; sedangkan my dog bersifat khusus. 
  • Relating verbs, dalam grammar disebut juga dengan linking verbs. Seperti to be [is, am, are: present], seem, look, taste dan lain sebagainya. 
  • Timeless present tense adalah salah satu penanda waktu dalam simple present seperti "often, usually, always" dan lain-lain. 
  • Technical terms, maksudnya adalah istilah-istilah yang meliputi teks report tersebut. Misalnya tentang "music" maka, istilah-istilah musik harus ada. 


Contoh Report Text : Thanksgiving Day


Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn. 



In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada.



It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.


Contoh Report Text : Venice


Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area. Venice has been known as the “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Bridges”, and “The City of Light”. The city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy.


Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot.


You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel by motorised waterbuses (“vaporetti”) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city’s islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges.


You can see the amusing city’s landmarks such as Piazza San Marco, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Saint Mark’s Cathedral or villas of the Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside.


They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic view, especially at night.

Television


Television, or TV, is one of humanity's most important means of communication. It brings pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.



People with a television set can sit in their house and watch the president makes a speech or visits a foreign country. They can see a war being fought, and they can wacth government leaders try to bring about peace. Through television, viewers at home can see and learn about peopl, places, and things in a away lands. Television even takes viewers out of this world as the astronauts explore outer space.



In addition to all these things, television brings its viewers a steady stream of programmes that are designed to entertain. In fact, TV provides many more entertainment programmes than any other kind of information media. The programmes include action-packed dramas, light comedies, soap operas, sports events, cartoons, quizzes, variety shows and motion pictures.



More than 83 million homes in the United States - or 98% of all the country's homes - have at least one television set. On the average, a television set is in use in each home for about 6 3/4 hours each day. As a result, television has an important influence on how people spend their time, as well as on what they see and learn. After they arrive from work, they usually watch TV. Then, the importance of television is proven. (Taken from The New Book of Knowledge)

A Motel


A motel is a kind of accommodation that provides parking space for the guest’s car. That’s why it is called a motel that stands for a motor hotel. The parking space is near building. Sometimes a motel provides a kitchen set to make a simple cook for breakfast. It is usually located in a small town between two big cities.
(Taken from Bahasa Inggris SMP kelas 3)

Football


Football is a game played by two teams of eleven. They try to score by kicking or heading the ball into the other team’s goal. Ten of the players can not use their hands. The goal keeper can handle the ball to stop it going into the goal.
Games similar to football have been played for many centuries. The rules of the games were written down in 1863. In England, the FA ( Football Association ) cup was first played for in 1872. In the same year, England played Scotland in the first game.
Today the most important International Competition is the World Cup which takes place in every four years. Brazil and Italy have each won the world cup three times.

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